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The Most Contaminated Fruits and Vegetables

People should be eating more fresh fruits and vegetables—it’s the one piece of advice that all the health authorities and gurus seem to agree on. But you’ve probably also heard that many common fruits and vegetables have high levels of pesticides and agricultural chemicals. Is this true? What about organic? Is it really better?

To help consumers make informed choices, the nonprofit Environmental Working Group (EWG) tests common fruits and vegetables for pesticide levels every year releasing the produce items with the highest levels of contamination, called the “Dirty Dozen,” along with the produce with the lowest levels of pesticides, called the “Clean Fifteen.” In 2014, the EWG lists included the following produce items:

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The EWG added hot peppers and kale/collard greens as “Plus” items to the “Dirty Dozen” list this year, bringing the total to 14. These items didn’t score high on the concentration of pesticide residues, but the type of pesticides used were “unusually hazardous,” according to the EWG.

It’s important to note that just because there is pesticide residue found on produce, it doesn’t mean that ingesting that residue is harmful. According to the EWG, “The health benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables outweigh the risks of pesticide exposure. Eating conventionally grown produce is far better than skipping fruits and vegetables.”

And the list itself has been called into question. A 2011 study published in the Journal of Toxicology concluded that consumer exposure to pesticides via the “Dirty Dozen” items “are at negligible levels and that the EWG methodology is insufficient to allow any meaningful rankings among commodities.” It further concluded that there is no indication that swapping out conventionally grown “Dirty Dozen” items for organic ones will “lead to any measurable consumer health benefit.”

The best advice? Carefully clean and prepare fresh fruits and vegetables before eating to reduce the risk of ingesting contaminants—whether they are pesticides or bacteria that could lead to food-borne illness. Buy local, farm fresh produce whenever you can. Before eating any fruits or vegetables, the FDA recommends:

Washing fruits and vegetables under running water before eating, cutting, or cooking.

Not using soap, detergent, or commercial produce washes to clean produce.

Cutting away any bruised or damaged areas and discard any produce that looks rotten.

Washing fruit—even if you plan to peel it before eating—to prevent dirt or bacteria from being transferred to the edible portion when you cut.

Scrubbing firm produce (e.g., melons, cucumbers) with a clean produce brush.

Drying produce with a cloth or paper towel to reduce any bacteria that may be present.


  • Environmental Working Group
  • Shopping Guide.
    Journal of Toxicology
  • Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues from Commodities Alleged to Contain the Highest Contamination Levels.
  • Food and Drug Administration
  • Raw Produce: Selecting and Serving it Safely.

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